The Gaza Cheat Sheet

About the Gaza Cheat Sheet

The Gaza Strip is a topic of great interest and debate in Israel and abroad and it is not always easy to find answers to the most basic questions about it. On this page we attempt to collect concise and up-to-date answers to some of the questions that we are asked frequently: What is the situation in the Gaza Strip? What are the restrictions currently imposed on the movement of people and goods into and out of the Strip? What is Gisha’s position on the subject? The Gaza Cheat Sheet is updated regularly.

Last update: August 19, 2014

Economic situation in Gaza

The situation in Gaza has not yet stabilized and it is difficult to obtain up-to-date and precise data on the current state of the economy •  Prior to the hostilities, more than 70% of the population received humanitarian assistance and during the military operation, aid organizations distributed food and other aid to hundreds of thousands of people who may not normally have required assistance • The unemployment rate was 45% in the second quarter of 2014 (compared to 18.7% in 2000) • Even before the military operation, there was a shortage of approximately 259 schools in Gaza, among other things because of restrictions on the entrance of construction materials • Classes are taught in two and sometimes three shifts.

Access policy

Entrance of goods into Gaza: Kerem Shalom, connecting Gaza to Israel, is the only official crossing open for the transfer of goods into and out of the Strip • Between July 6 – August 2, 2014, Israel restricted entrance of goods to the Gaza Strip, allowing in only medicine, food, and fuel • Items Israel defines as dual-use, including construction materials, are not being allowed into the Strip at all, and were only allowed for international organizations prior to the start of the hostilities • Since June 30, 2014, construction materials have also not entered through the Rafah crossing • Previously, construction materials entered in small quantities via Rafah Crossing for reconstruction projects funded by the Qatari government.

Exit of goods from Gaza: The ban on sale of goods from Gaza to the West Bank and Israel, in effect since June 2007, remains in place • Since March 2012, in an exception to the rule, 55 truckloads of goods have exited Gaza for the West Bank and Israel: 49 truckloads of date bars for a World Food Programme project and 4 truckloads of school desks and chairs ordered by the Palestinian Authority to the West Bank plus 2 truckloads of palm fronds to Israel • Export has not been allowed out of Gaza since June 9, however in theory, export abroad is permitted • Demand for Gaza-made goods outside of the West Bank and Israel is low • During the months January – July 2014, an average of 12 truckloads of goods exited Gaza each month, or less than 1% of what exited monthly prior to 2007.

Travel between Gaza and the West Bank: The only crossings through which people are permitted to travel to and from the Gaza Strip are Erez (to Israel) and Rafah (to Egypt) • Israel allows passage through Erez only “in exceptional humanitarian cases, with an emphasis on urgent medical cases” in addition to some merchants • Since mid-June, 2014, Israel has only allowed transit at Erez for medical patients and their companions and foreign citizens.

Travel from Gaza to the outside world: Such travel takes place mostly through Egypt • During the first half of 2013, approximately 40,000 people transited at Rafah in both directions • Starting in July 2013, Egypt began limiting passage to exceptional cases only, following instability in the country, as well as limiting the days of operation of the crossing • During the first half of this year, the number of crossings per month fell to about 6,445 or 16% of the total of the corresponding period in 2013 • Currently, the crossing is open for medical emergencies and those holding foreign nationality, residency or visas, however waiting times to exit are long • Through its control of the Palestinian population registry, Israel has indirect control over the issuing of Palestinian passports, which are required for travel through Rafah.

Access to the Gaza Strip’s land, territorial waters and air space: Israel prevents all access to and from the Gaza Strip by sea and air • As of July 6, 2014, Israel limits fishing in Gaza’s territorial waters to three nautical miles off the coast • Israel officially prevents access to a “buffer zone” of land inside Gaza at a distance of 300 meters from the border fence.

Gisha’s position

By virtue of Israel’s substantial control of the Gaza Strip, international law requires Israel to facilitate normal life in the Strip, including by allowing access for civilians and civilian goods. Alongside this obligation, Israel has the authority to decide by which routes both people and goods enter and leave Gaza and to establish reasonable and proportionate security measures to prevent the transfer of weapons and other military activity. Accordingly, Gisha’s position is that Israel must lift the sweeping restrictions that remain and allow entrance of construction materials, sale of goods to the West Bank and Israel and travel of people between Gaza and the West Bank, subject to individual security inspections.

An opening of the Rafah Crossing by Egypt would allow for a welcome improvement in Gaza residents’ ability to access the outside world. This would not detract from Israel’s obligation to allow regular travel between Gaza and the West Bank, which continue to share a single economy, a single education system, a single healthcare system and countless familial, cultural and social ties.

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